Issue Vol. Authorization Required. Log In. Figure 1 Comparison of the predicted dielectric constant Eq. Figure 2 Comparison of the predicted dielectric constant Eq.
An Introduction to Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions
Figure 3 The spherical triangle created by the unit vectors in the directions of E ion , E ex , and p. Sign up to receive regular email alerts from Physical Review E. Journal: Phys. X Rev. A Phys. B Phys. The development of green energy storage devices with good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost are urgently demanded.
Here we report on a lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution. Its average discharge voltage is up to 3. It will be a promising energy storage system with good safety and efficient cooling effects. Recently, the rapid depletion of fossil fuels and the increasing emission of greenhouse gases causing air pollution have become serious issues.
An Introduction to Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions by Margaret Robson Wright - fuereptefi.ga
Development of the next generation of green energy storage devices is urgently demanded 1 , 2 , 3. New energy industry including electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage systems ESSs such as smart grids requires energy storage systems with good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost. Although lithium ion batteries LIBs show good promise with some quite dominant advantages over conventional batteries, their applications in large-scale ESS such as electric vehicles and smart grids are still not commercially viable due to their inherent safety problems related to the use of high cost, toxic and flammable organic electrolyte and slow charging performance 7 , 8 , 9.
Since aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries ARLBs using positive electrode materials from commercial LIBs were first introduced in , they have attracted wide attention as a promising system because of their low capital investment, environmental friendliness and good safety 10 , 11 , Additionally, the organic electrolyte solution is replaced by the non-flammable aqueous electrolyte with high ionic conductivity, about 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of the organic electrolytes, which can lead to good rate performance and low over potentials. Recent results show that nanostructured materials as positive electrode materials for ARLBs present much better electrochemical performance than LIBs using organic electrolytes.
For example, LiMn 2 O 4 nanotube shows a superfast second-level charge and discharge capability and excellent cycling behavior because of the nanostructure and preferred orientation 13 , 14 , Recently, we prepared a coated lithium metal, which is stable in aqueous electrolytes, to build an ARLB with a stable working voltage of 4.
They can be a suitable alternative because their energy density can be above that of the corresponding lithium ion batteries. However, the use of Li metal as the negative electrode in conventional lithium metal secondary batteries are restricted by cycling due to dendrites, which can break down during the cycling and lead to sudden death of the battery. Recently, another kind of ARLB, aqueous lithium ion battery, was reported with stable voltage up to 3. Here, we report another aqueous lithium ion battery ALIB which consists of graphite instead of Li metal as the negative electrode, which presents excellent cycling, and commercial LiFePO 4 as the positive electrode in aqueous electrolyte.
As shown in Fig. S1 of ESI electronic supporting information , the coated graphite acted as the negative electrode. In the case of graphite, there is a reduction peak at 0. The charge and discharge curves of graphite in the 1st, 2nd 4th and its cycling performance are shown in Fig. Similar to former reports, there is some slight irreversible capacity in the first cycle due to the formation of SEI film. These results are consistent with the above CV results.
S3 for morphology and X-ray diffraction in ESI is a positive electrode material for lithium-ion batteries with good thermal stability and environmental benign The separation of the redox peaks is much narrower than that in the organic electrolyte They establish another ALIB whose electrode reactions is shown in the following equations 1—3 :. During the discharge process, the reverse process takes place. The resulting scheme is show in Fig. Since its positive electrode is put into aqueous electrolyte solution instead of an organic one, it is called an aqueous lithium ion battery ALIB.
S4 also shows a couple of redox peaks situated at 3. The reversible intercalation-deintercalation process will not happen in water. Meanwhile, water and protons could not enter into the negative side with a low potential so that hydrogen could not be produced.
As to the LiFePO 4 positive electrode, it is stable in water since its potential is below that for the oxygen evolution and much higher than that for hydrogen evolution In the first cycle between 2. Its discharge capacities can be comparable to those of LiFePO 4 as positive electrode in aqueous or organic electrolytes. The charge and discharge curves in the 10th and the 20th cycles for the assembled ALIB overlap very well, indicating a good reversibility. If graphite with higher capacity is used, the energy density will be higher.
The assembled ALIB presents For example, at a rate of 0.
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On the one hand, we do not use the coated Li metal as the negative electrode due to the problem of its lacking stability. On the other hand, the aqueous electrolyte has higher thermal capacitance and can absorb large amounts of heat. During the same charge-discharge process, the temperature of this system will be more stable in comparison with that of the conventional lithium ion batteries.
Water or aqueous electrolyte is in direct contact with both the negative and the positive electrodes, and the cooling effects are very efficient. A cooling system, which is usually required for large capacity battery modules, is not needed for the application of this battery in electric vehicles. In addition, here the composite polymer membrane is flame retarding and becomes a gel after saturating with the organic electrolyte, which presents much slower evaporation speed in comparison with the organic electrolytes This design is also different from the reported ALIB whose stable voltage is up to 3.
As a result, it will be a promising energy storage system. However, there are some problems related to the possible practical applications by adopting the solid state electrolytes LISICON due to the following two reasons. The mechanism of this taste inhibition is not adequately understood. In this study, we aim to demonstrate that the inhibition is cause by ions, which elicit taste and which migrate from the taste sensors on the tongue by GTS.
We verified the inhibitory effect of GTS on all five basic tastes induced by electrolyte materials. This technology is effective for virtual reality systems and interfaces to support dietary restrictions.
Our findings demonstrate that cathodal-GTS inhibits all the five basic tastes. The results also support our hypothesis that the effects of cathodal-GTS are caused by migrating tasting ions in the mouth. Galvanic tongue stimulation GTS induces an electric or metallic taste Stevens et al.
ignamant.cl/wp-includes/76/235-espiar-whatsapp-android.php This fact was first discovered by Sulzer in the 18th century. As GTS can induce taste without consumption of solids or liquids, this technology would be effective in providing a virtual consumption experience and in supporting dietary restrictions. Therefore, GTS is likely to be employed for virtual reality and health engineering purposes Vazquez-Buenosaires et al.
For such engineering applications, GTS should be able to preferably regulate all the five taste sensations, i. However, the electrical taste induced by GTS is extraordinarily complex and it has been generally known as a method to induce electrical taste Lawless et al. Conventional studies about GTS reported that an electrical taste is induced when the anode is in the proximity of the tongue anodal-GTS Platttig and Innitzer, ; Ranasinghe et al. Although their studies demonstrate the inhibitory effects of cathodal-GTS on salty and bitter-salty tastes, the group did not investigate whether other basic tastes were affected.
Moreover, the inhibitory mechanism was not adequately investigated. Currently, two tentative hypothesis of the cathodal-GTS inhibitory mechanism exist: the ionic migration hypothesis and the nervous stimulation hypothesis. In contrast, the nervous stimulation hypothesis, which is the simplest considerable alternate hypothesis, states that the electrical current disrupts nerve activation or habituates nerves. In anodal-GTS, Volta and Bujas proposed that stimulation current directly affects may depolarize taste cells or taste nerves Bujas, ; Nakamura and Miyashita, Therefore, it is rational to consider that in cathodal-GTS, the cathodal current directly deactivates nerves or brings a negative effect.
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The objective of the present study is to determine the inhibitory mechanism of cathodal-GTS, and to investigate whether it influences all five basic tastes. Electrode arrangement of galvanic tongue stimulation GTS and image of ionic migration theory. The gustatory sensors, referred to as the taste buds, detect chemicals in the mouth, which constitute the sense of taste.
Each taste bud contains taste cells, which have receptors at the surface of the cell Chandrashekar et al. From this perspective, materials that generate tastes can be divided into two categories: electrolytes and non-electrolytes. If the nervous stimulation hypothesis is valid, the cathodal-GTS should inhibit the taste induced by both electrolytes and non-electrolytes.
However, if the ionic migration hypothesis is valid, then the cathodal-GTS should inhibit only the taste induced by electrolytes.