Guide Herpesvirus Diseases of Cattle, Horses, and Pigs

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A group of tick-borne diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Babesia. Babesiosis is a significant problem in domestic and wild animals wherever suitable tick vectors occur, especially in the tropics. The most important economic losses are caused in cattle by B bovis and B bigemina , acting either singly or together in the same group of animals.

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Since these 2 species share tick vectors with Anaplasma marginale see above , some or all of them can combine to produce a fatal syndrome known as tick fever. To a large extent, the major Babesia spp are both host and vector specific. Thus, B bovis and B bigemina are found exclusively in cattle, and their distribution coincides with that of their major tick vectors, Boophilus spp. Certain other ticks can act as vectors, and mechanical transmission by biting flies can occur. B Bovine brucellosis Brucella abortus. The disease in cattle is caused almost exclusively by Brucella abortus ; however, B suis or B melitensis is occasionally implicated.

Infection spreads rapidly and causes many abortions in unvaccinated herds. Typically, in a herd in which disease is endemic, an infected cow aborts only once after exposure; subsequent gestations and lactations appear normal.

Herpesvirus Diseases of Cattle, Horses, and Pigs - Google книги

Following exposure, many cattle become bacteremic for a short period and develop agglutinins and other antibodies; most of the remainder resist infection, and a small percentage of infected cows recover. A venereal disease of cattle characterized by infertility and early embryonic death. Abortion occurs in a small percentage of infected cows.

Associated Data

Campylobacter fetus subsp venerealis , the usual cause of this disease, is a gram-negative, curved or spiral-shaped rod, which is motile by means of a polar flagellum. B Bovine tuberculosis Mycobacterium bovis. An infectious disease caused by acid-fast bacilli of the genus Mycobacterium.

Although commonly defined as a chronic, debilitating disease, TB occasionally assumes an acute, rapidly progressive course. The disease affects practically all species of vertebrates, and before control measures were adopted, was a major disease of man and domestic animals. Signs and lesions are generally similar in the various species. Once widespread, particularly in dairy cattle, control programs have so reduced the incidence that several countries have virtually eliminated it.

The source of infection is usually other infected cattle, although in some countries, pulmonary or genitourinary TB in man, or bovine TB in wild animals are sources of infection. Tuberculous animals with nonencapsulated lung lesions expel infected droplets into the air by coughing, and contaminate pasture via the feces.

Adult animals are infected by inhalation of airborne dust particles as well as by ingestion of contaminated feed or water. Calves may become infected by drinking contaminated milk. Acute lesions are usually found in the thorax and sometimes in the lymph nodes of the head or intestines.


Herpesvirus Diseases of Cattle, Horses, and Pigs

Lesions may be found in many organs in advanced stages of the disease and in tissues that seldom are primarily affected; thus, infection of the udder, uterus, various lymph nodes, kidneys, and the meninges occurs with varying frequency. The skeletal muscles are seldom affected, even in advanced cases. TB of the udder is of special significance because of the contamination of milk with viable tubercle bacilli. Taenia saginata occurs in the small intestine of man the only definitive host and the metacestode Cysticercus bovis is found in cattle although other ruminants will serve as intermediate hosts i.

Dermatophilus infection, Cutaneous streptotrichosis, Lumpy wool, Strawberry foot rot. An infection of the epidermis, seen worldwide, but more prevalent in the tropics, also called, erroneously, mycotic dermatitis.


The lesions are characterized by exudative dermatitis with scab formation. Dermatophilus congolensis has a wide host range. In domestic animals, the condition most frequently affects cattle, sheep, and goats; it occasionally affects horses, but is rare in pigs, dogs, and cats. It is commonly called cutaneous streptotrichosis in cattle, goats, and horses; in sheep, it is termed lumpy wool when the wooled areas of the body are affected, and strawberry foot rot when the distal portions of the limbs are affected.

The few human cases reported usually have been associated with handling diseased animals. The term leukosis indicates a malignant proliferation of leukocyte-forming tissue. Because lymphoid tumors predominate in cattle, lymphosarcoma and malignant lymphoma are synonymous. Sometimes, the disease is called leukemia, but the presence of malignant cells in blood is not a consistent finding. Four clinicopathologic syndromes are recognized: calf, thymic, skin, and adult. The first 3 forms are called sporadic leukosis because there is no evidence that they are contagious.

The adult syndrome, also known as enzootic leukosis, is caused by the bovine leukosis virus BLV. Sporadic leukosis occurs worldwide, whereas the geographic distribution of enzootic leukosis is directly related to BLV prevalence.

Sheep and goats can be infected experimentally with BLV, and most infected sheep develop lymphosarcoma. There have been a few reports of naturally infected flocks, but the source and mechanism of infection for these are unknown. All evidence indicates that BLV does not spread from sheep to cattle or from cattle to sheep by normal contact. Epidemiological and serological studies have failed to show any evidence of human infection or disease associated with exposure to BLV. An acute pasteurellosis, principally of cattle and water buffalo, that frequently reaches epidemic proportions.

HS is a major disease of cattle and water buffalo in southern and eastern Asia, Africa, and some countries of southern Europe and the Middle East. Although it may occur at any time of year, the worst epidemics occur during the rainy season. It is most common in the river valleys and deltas of southeast Asia among buffaloes used in rice cultivation. Water buffalo are thought to be more susceptible than cattle. There have been reports of HS in horses, pigs, deer, bison, camels, elephants, and yaks. It is likely that wild cattle and buffalo are also susceptible. As few as 20, bacteria given subcut.

Laboratory rabbits and mice are highly susceptible to experimental infection. HS is caused by 1 of 2 serotypes of Pasteurella multocida. Bovine herpesvirus 1 BHV-1 can cause mild to severe syndromes in cattle of all ages and breeds. Furthermore, it can affect many body systems and thereby manifest itself in several forms, including respiratory disease, abortions, encephalitis, a systemic disease, conjunctivitis, or genital infection. In feedlot cattle, the respiratory form is most common; in breeding cattle, abortions or genital infections are more common.

Following recovery from infection, the virus usually is maintained in a latent state that can be reactivated periodically following transport, concurrent disease, other stress, or corticosteroid treatment. Animals with latent infections generally show no clinical signs when the virus is reactivated, but they do serve as a source of infection for other susceptible animals and thus perpetuate the disease. Although there are strain differences within the BHV-1 group, there is little association with particular syndromes; all forms of the disease can be caused by the same isolate under appropriate conditions.

The virus can be isolated from nasal, ocular, and vaginal secretions, and semen and preputial washings. A venereal, protozoal disease of cattle characterized by early fetal death and infertility associated with greatly extended calving intervals. The cause is a piriform protozoan, Tritrichomonas Trichomonas foetus. A group of diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma , which affect all domestic animals. An acute, sporadic, infectious disease of cattle and some other Bovidae and Cervidae, characterized by low morbidity and extremely high mortality, although on occasions, morbidity can be high, particularly in susceptible species such as Pere David's deer and Bali cattle.

MCF has become an important disease of farmed deer. While MCF is a single clinicopathological entity, there are at least 2 distinct but related agents that can cause the disease naturally. It occurs worldwide and is thought to infect most domestic sheep, usually without causing disease. A progressive, fatal, nervous disease of adult domestic cattle, which closely resembles scrapie of sheep and goats; it was first diagnosed in Britain in The causal agent has not been identified, but similarities between BSE and scrapie suggest that it belongs to a group of incompletely characterized microorganisms called unconventional viruses or prions.

These agents, in addition to scrapie, cause transmissible mink encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of mule deer, and kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of man. Theileria mutans was first described as a benign parasite of the ox by Theiler, but its identity was inextricably confused with that of other benign species of Theileria for many years. It was assumed to be the only benign bovine Theileria in Africa until when it was demonstrated that Theileria taurotragi was also capable of causing a mild clinical reaction in cattle.

Elsewhere in the world the benign Theileria of cattle is considered to be Theileria orientalis. Theileria mutans is now known to be confined to eastern, western and southern Africa and to the Caribbean Islands where it was introduced in cattle from Africa. The parasite also infects the African buffalo, in which it was first described under the name Theileria barnetti.

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Its only practical significance in southern Africa is the confusion that it causes in the differential diagnosis of members of the Theileria parva complex. In East Africa, pathogenic strains of the parasite occur which may cause severe clinical illness and death. Corridor disease is an acute, usually fatal disease of cattle resembling East Coast fever and is caused by infection with Theileria parva lawrencei which is transmitted by ticks from African buffaloes.

The disease was first recognized in in Zimbabwe as a form of pathogenic theilerial infection distinguishable from East Coast fever on clinical, pathological, parasitological and epidemiological grounds. Previous occurrences in the region may well have been obscured by the widespread prevalance of East Coast fever.

Twenty years later the disease was recognised in South Africa and the causal organism was identified as a new species, Theileria lawrencei , by Neitz in Subsequent investigation revealed that immunologically the parasite was a member of the Theileria parva complex and it was proposed as a subspecies of Theileria parva , namely, Theileria parva lawrencei. The disease and its causal organism are described by Neitz. The disease has been named buffalo disease, for obvious reasons, and corridor disease, because the first outbreak in South Africa occurred in the corridor between the Hluhluwe and Umfolozi Game Reserves in Natal.

Herpesvirus diseases of cattle, horses, and pigs [1989]

It occurs sporadically throughout southern and eastern Africa wherever there is contact between cattle and infected African buffaloes in the presence of ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus , R. B ovis produces a disease unique to sheep: epididymitis and orchitis impair fertility, which is the principal economic effect. Occasionally, placentitis and abortion are observed and there may be perinatal mortality.

The disease was first described in New Zealand and Australia, and has since been reported from most sheep-raising areas of the world. B Caprine and ovine brucellosis Brucella melitensis. Brucella melitensis infection in sheep causes clinical disease similar to that in goats.

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The signs of brucellosis in goats are similar to those in cattle. The disease is prevalent in most countries where goats are a significant part of the animal industry. It is rare in the USA. The causal agent usually is Brucella melitensis , but B abortus has been implicated. Infection occurs primarily through ingestion of the organism, but conjunctival, vaginal, and subcut. The disease causes abortion about the fourth month of pregnancy.