One of the most costly resources to a university is its teachers. And yet resources are dissipated in the traditional residential universities, where lectures and hard resources may be reduplicated across a number of different campuses.
Essentially the same lecture in any discipline may, for example, be delivered in the course of a week by as many lecturers as there are universities which offer the subject. There is consequently a wasteful reduplication of both human and material resources, but one which is necessitated by the large number of geographically dispersed student groups. Consider, too, that of all lecturers delivering classes in some subject area, only some subset may truly be considered subject experts.
Consequently, across a number of student groups, only a subset are able to benefit from tuition by an expert in the discipline. All of which leads one to re-examine the role of the university and the continued need for residential teaching. With new technologies relentlessly redefining the way we work and live in the so-called Information Society, it may not merely be a costly anachronism to continue to embrace the model of the traditional residential university as the primary locus of learning — it may arguably be an impediment to appropriate learning and ultimately a threat to growth, both economic and personal.
If structured high quality learning materials, with appropriate and effective tutorial support, can be made available online to whoever has access to a computer and modem, without other constraints of time and place, then the traditional residential teaching university would seem to become largely redundant. In the first, existing universities create online electronic resources to serve both their residential and their enrolled distance-learning students. I suggest that this strategy, if it amounts to no more than the established residential universities simply publishing their home-grown course notes on the Web for consumption as supplementary materials by their students and locality alone, will, while well-meaning and in the short term probably useful to both staff and students, in the long run turn out to be a dead end, a waste of investment, a minor monument to institutional timidity.
Many of the benefits are well understood, and need no more than brief mention here. That, for example, it overcomes the major constraints of time and space. Or that it increases student choice by being able to offer topics for study that for single institutions — locked in a neo-Fordist mass production of learners more characteristic of the first industrial age — it would not be cost-effective to offer. But what will we be able to study? Surely no organisation can, in any case, draw on that breadth of expertise?
The answer lies in separating the facility itself from courseware provision. Competition between course providers in the same subject areas gives additonal incentive to ensure that the learning materials offered are of the highest possible quality and value to the learner, just as competition between the virtual universities for students should in turn drive a pursuit of excellence.
Well, yes, you say, this is fine for the liberal studies student interested in learning for its own sake. But what if I want to gain at the end of it a respectable university degree with professional recognition?
The New Millennium Learners: Challenging our Views on Digital Technologies and Learning
Essentially the same principle applies. Courseware from a wide range of independent course providers — these might be commercial organisations e. As in the traditional university, award-earning programmes of study would be formally structured — essential if the learner is to be formally credited for successfully completed courses. While an independent advisory board for each disciplinary area would be responsible for ensuring the quality and global coherence of the whole, the distributed nature of the resource would ensure that individual contributors would be able to update and add further materials reflecting their native expertise, as well as being responsible, as subject experts, for assessment and for conformity with national and international standards.
But surely students would benefit from tutorial support?
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Provision of tutorial supervision — teletutoring — would be managed in much the same way as courseware provision: freelance tutors, anywhere in the world, might advertise their services through university bulletin boards, negotiating directly with individual students. The use of remote lecturers, tutors, and perhaps industrial mentors, online would enable a customisation of learning unthinkable in the traditional university.
Learning in the Third Millennium by Departamento Comunicación IESEK - Issuu
Monitored online self-assessment for rapid feedback together with submission and assessment of coursework to tutors via electronic mail would form the hub of the student evaluation process. Where appropriate, accreditation would be given as for course review and validation by professional societies, by participating terrestrial universities, and by other course providers.
Online student testing including self-assessment creates the possibility to control and assess learning progress, with results of tests automatically relayed to spreadsheets and forwarded to tutors. There are clear benefits with regard to resourcing issues. The number of students admitted to a course in the traditional residential university is constrained by the resources available equipment, lecturers, library provisions, size of teaching rooms, …. Most resource issues become irrelevant in the virtual university. The teaching and resource materials may be updated, extended or otherwise modified regularly at minimal cost since only a single electronic copy — rather than multiple paper copies — need be changed.
The chapters are: The on-demand society; Some highlights in learning history; The on-demand learner; How to enable on-demand learning; Technological considerations for on-demand learning; On-demand learning best practices employee and customer examples ; Learn2now. Bibliography included. Subjects: Research ; Teaching and learning ; Technology.
Statement of responsibility: By Darin E. Hartley; with an introduction by John Cone. Skip to main content. Those in the Baby Boom generation entered the workforce with a goal of stability; subsequent generations are more concerned with finding happiness and fulfillment in their work lives. Young workers in North America are now likely to change jobs at a much higher rate than previously, as much as once every 4.
As western economies have transformed from industrial-based to service-based , trades and vocations have smaller roles.
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The skills have been grouped into three main areas: . Many of these skills are also identified as key qualities of progressive education , a pedagogical movement that began in the late nineteenth century and continues in various forms to the present. Since the early s, a variety of governmental, academic, non-profit, and corporate entities have conducted considerable research to identify key personal and academic skills and competencies they determined were needed for the current and next generation.
The identification and implementation of 21st century skills into education and workplaces began in the United States but has spread to Canada,   the United Kingdom,  New Zealand,  and through national and international organizations such as APEC  and the OECD. A key finding was that "educational reform should focus on the goal of creating a Learning Society. Skills and abilities consolidated : . Until the dawn of the 21st century, education systems across the world focussed on preparing their students to accumulate content and knowledge.
Therefore, while skills such as literacy and numeracy are still relevant and necessary, they are no longer sufficient.
kamishiro-hajime.info/voice/comment-pirater/comment-espionner-un-iphone-5-sans-jailbreak.php In order to respond to technological, demographic and socio-economic changes, education systems began to make the shift toward providing their students with a range of skills that relied not only on cognition but also on the interdependencies of cognitive, social, and emotional characteristics.
Additional research has found that the top skills demanded by U. Fortune companies by the year had shifted from traditional reading, writing and arithmetic to teamwork, problem solving, and interpersonal skills. A report from MIT researchers countered the suggestion that students acquire critical skills and competencies independently by interacting with popular culture, noting three continuing trends that suggest the need for policy and pedagogical interventions:" .
States also convened teams of teachers to assist and provide feedback as well as they looked towards the National Education Association NEA and many other education organizations to provide constructive feedback. The skills and competencies that are generally considered "21st Century skills" are varied but share some common themes. They are based on the premise that effective learning, or deeper learning , a set of student educational outcomes including acquisition of robust core academic content, higher-order thinking skills, and learning dispositions.
This pedagogy involves creating, working with others, analyzing, and presenting and sharing both the learning experience and the learned knowledge or wisdom, including to peers and mentors as well as teachers. The classification or grouping has been undertaken to encourage and promote pedagogies that facilitate deeper learning through both traditional instruction as well as active learning , project-based learning , problem based learning , and others.
An overview of e-Learning and enabling technology
A survey conducted by the American Management Association AMA identified three top skills necessary for their employees: critical thinking , communication and collaboration. The Common Core Standards issued in were intended to support the "application of knowledge through higher-order thinking skills. Skills identified for success in the areas of literacy and mathematics:  .
Following the release of A Nation at Risk , the U.